ACHISH


ACHISH
ACHISH (Heb. אָכִישׁ), philistine king of gath , mentioned at the end of Saul's reign. In I Samuel 27:2, his father's name is given as Maoch. Achish's realm was extensive and included the city of Ziklag and its environs (I Sam. 27:6). Fugitives from Judah often sought shelter in his land because of its proximity to Judah (I Kings 2:39–40). At first Achish refused david permission to stay in his territory, possibly to avoid becoming embroiled in a political conflict with Saul (I Sam. 21:11 ff.). After a company of several hundred men, however, had gathered around David, Achish welcomed him and even allocated to him the Ziklag region (I Sam. 27). It is possible that David took his first steps in royal administration when he was in the kingdom of Gath. In the Septuagint Achish is called Akchous, Agchous, Agchis. If the late readings reflect some early tradition, it would seem almost certain that the original form of the name was Achush or Akkush, which corresponds or is related to Ikusu, the name of one of the kings of Ekron in the days of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, now attested to in a monumental inscription from Ekron. The name Achish is not Semitic in form, and some scholars have related it to Agchioses, the name of a king in the neighborhood of Troy who lived around the time of the Trojan War (Iliad, 2:819; 20:239; et al.). The fact that the form Agchisis is not Greek supports the theory that Achish and Agchisis may have had a common origin. Since the name Akhshan is found in an Egyptian list as the name of a son of Kaphtor (Keftiu), it is plausible to assume that the form "Achish" stems from the same group of peoples to which the Philistines belonged. But it is also conceivable that the name is Horite, because the combination of sounds in "Achish" is possible in Horite. J. Naveh has argued that Achish was an appellative employed as a throne name. A king of Gath called Achish is also referred to in the fourth year of Solomon's rule; he is called "Achish son of Maacah" (I Kings 2:39). Perhaps there were two kings by this name; Achish son of Maoch, the predecessor, and Achish son of Maacah, the successor of an intermediate king called Maacah. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mazar, in: PIASH, vol. 1, no. 7 (1964), 1 ff. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: V. Sasson, in: UF 29 (1997), 627–39; J. Naveh, in: BASOR 310 (1998), 35–37; A. Demsky, in: BAR 24, 5 (1998), 53–58. (Joshua Gutmann)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Achish — is a name used in the Hebrew Bible for two Philistine rulers of Gath. It may mean angry, Fact|date=May 2008 and is perhaps only a general title of royalty, applicable to the Philistine kings. The two kings of Gath, which is identified by most… …   Wikipedia

  • Achish —    Angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the Philistine kings.    1) The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10 15). He is called Abimelech in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Achish — /ay kish/, n. the king of the Philistine city of Gath, who twice gave refuge to David. I Sam. 21:10 15. * * * …   Universalium

  • Achish — /ay kish/, n. the king of the Philistine city of Gath, who twice gave refuge to David. I Sam. 21:10 15 …   Useful english dictionary

  • DAVID — (Heb. דָּוִד), youngest son of Jesse of the Ephrathite family that lived in Beth Lehem in Judah (I Sam. 16:1; 20:27–28; I Chron. 2:13–15; cf. Micah 5:1). In the Bible SOURCES I Samuel 16–II Kings 2 is our main source for David, supplemented by I… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Books of Samuel — The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Sh muel ספר שמואל) are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaism s Hebrew Bible) and also of the Christian Old Testament. The work was originally written in Hebrew, and the Book(s) of Samuel originally formed a single …   Wikipedia

  • 1 Samuel 27 — 1 And David said in his heart, I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul: there is nothing better for me than that I should speedily escape into the land of the Philistines; and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any more in any coast of… …   The King James version of the Bible

  • 1 Samuel 29 — 1 Now the Philistines gathered together all their armies to Aphek: and the Israelites pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel. 2 And the lords of the Philistines passed on by hundreds, and by thousands: but David and his men passed on in the… …   The King James version of the Bible

  • PHILISTINES — (Heb. פְּלִשְׁתִּים), a people of Aegean origin occupying the south coast of Palestine, called Philistia (פְּלֶשֶׁת, peleshet) in the Bible, and often at war with the Israelites. The name Philistine is first found in the Egyptian form prst as one …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • David — This article is about the biblical king. For other uses, see David (disambiguation). Daud , Dawood , and King David redirect here. For other uses, see Daud (disambiguation), Dawood (disambiguation), and King David (disambiguation). King David… …   Wikipedia


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